It is hard to overstate the importance of deciding between aggressively paying off your student loans through refinancing or waiting for student loan forgiveness. Doctors, lawyers, and many other professionals with graduate degrees often have well over $100,000 in federal student loans, and the wrong decision could cost thousands of dollars. How does a borrower know when it is time to refinance or when to stick with Public Service Loan Forgiveness?
The borrowers who worry that they may not ever be able to pay off their loans should usually stick with chasing loan forgiveness. Borrowers who can comfortably afford to pay off their student loans may find that the math says aggressive repayment and refinancing is the preferred route.
Making forgiveness vs. refinancing decision requires comparing possible spending, but this is not strictly a math question. Borrowers should also consider their plans for the future as well as the risks to each strategy.
Aggressive Repayment and Refinancing vs. Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF)
For borrowers with federal student loans, Public Service Loan Forgiveness provides a great opportunity to wipe the slate of student debt clean, provided you work for a non-profit or the government. If you make 120 certified public service payments, the debt is forgiven completely.
The other option is to refinance and aggressively pay off your student loans. With each passing day, loan balances grow due to interest. Refinancing enables borrowers to save money on interest. The sooner you pay off your student loans, the less money you spend in total.
These two routes are often ideal ways to eliminate student debt. Unfortunately, they are polar opposite approaches. Chasing PSLF requires a borrower to sign up for an income-driven repayment plan and to pay as little as possible in hopes that the debt is wiped away after ten years. Aggressive repayment means attacking your debt with every spare penny you have.
Because these two approaches are opposites, the sooner you make an informed choice, the more money you will save in the long run. Making a smart decision requires considering several different factors.
How much debt can I have forgiven under PSLF?
There is no cap on the amount of money that can be forgiven under PSLF, but that doesn’t mean that the program is not without risk.
Depending upon your income and debt balance, paying the minimum and waiting for public service loan forgiveness, can be the more expensive option.
To estimate how much you will spend on public service loan forgiveness and how much will be forgiven at the end, use the federal government’s repayment estimator. (Note: the repayment estimator assumes incremental raises during repayment… if your salary will be going up faster, or staying the same, be sure to adjust accordingly).
Another big advantage of Public Service Loan Forgiveness is that the debt forgiven is not taxed. This is significant, as most forms of student loan forgiveness result in a large tax bill.
Is there a risk to Public Service Loan Forgiveness being eliminated?
One possible risk of chasing PSLF is the chance that the program will not exist. We think the program is likely to continue unchanged for the foreseeable future, and if changed, we would expect current borrowers to be grandfathered in under the current rules.
However, there is no guarantee that the program will continue. Additionally, no matter how sure you are about staying in your current job, ten years is a long time, and sometimes life has other plans. As a result, it is vital to account for the fact that you might not be in public service long enough to qualify.
Getting rejected from Public Service Loan Forgiveness
There have been numerous media reports that the rejection rate for Public Service Loan Forgiveness is 99%.
This should be a concern to borrowers, but it shouldn’t scare people away from PSLF. Qualifying for Public Service Loan Forgiveness is not as hard as the news makes it sound.
The most important thing for any borrower considering PSLF is to send in an employer certification form (ECF). The ECF causes the loan servicer to review the borrower’s employer, the borrower’s loans, and the borrower’s repayment plan. By completing an ECF, the borrower will get an up to date tally on the number of eligible payments the borrower has made towards the required 120. An employer certification form is the best way to track progress towards forgiveness.
Though not required by the government, completing an ECF should be done by all public service employees every year.
How much can I save by refinancing my student loans?
Refinancing is typically the first step in implementing an aggressive repayment strategy. Refinancing can mean significantly lower interest rates, which means a greater percentage of each monthly payment is applied to principal.
Projecting how much it would cost to aggressively pay off your student loans requires some guess-work as well. In addition to your future income being a variable, future expenses are as well. You might be in a position to pay off all of your student loans in five years, but things, like buying a house, having a baby, or changing jobs, could throw your calculations way off.
To figure out how much you can save by refinancing, it is important to shop around to compare the rates you qualify for with the many different student loan refinance companies. You can compare the repayment estimates from the private lenders to potential savings from loan forgiveness to see what your monthly costs would look like and how long it would take you to pay off the debt. Most lenders will disclose the total spent on the loan. You can compare this number to the results from the federal repayment estimator.
Borrowers wishing to do some quick math without applying can consult our monthly report on the lowest student loan refinance rates.
At present, the lowest possible refinance rates for a 5-year loan are:
Refinancing comes with serious risks
All borrowers should understand that private refinancing comes with a couple of risks that should be understood before opting for the private sector option.
The first concern is that refinancing your federal loans with a private lender wipes away all of the perks that go with federal loans. That means no public service loan forgiveness and no income-driven repayments if you lose your job or have your salary cut.
The second concern is that there is no way to undo a loan refinance or consolidation. Once it is processed, it is permanent. You cannot change your new private loan back into a federal loan. If you decide to refinance, you better be sure about your decision.
The Best of Both Worlds
Even though aggressive repayment and waiting for PSLF are polar opposite strategies, borrowers who are on the fence can split the difference.
Spitting the difference is pretty simple:
- Sign up for an income-driven repayment plan and work towards PSLF.
- Set aside money for future student loan payments in a savings account or conservative investment.
- If PSLF ends up working out, the money set aside can be for retirement or a house down payment.
- If forgiveness doesn’t work out, the money set aside can put a big dent in the debt.
However, if you reach a point where it is clear you will come out ahead by aggressively paying down your debt, reach out to the refinance lenders, lock in a lower interest rate, and aggressively attack your student loans. Events that might trigger this shift would include changing jobs to the private sector or getting a big raise that would mean there is little left to have forgiven on PSLF.
Making Your Decision
In some cases, the numbers will dictate that opting for PSLF is the better alternative. For others, the best route will be just to pay off the loans as fast as possible. Things get complicated when the numbers appear to be relatively close, and there isn’t a clear best option.
As you evaluate your options, there are several questions you should ask yourself:
- How certain am I that I will be in public service for ten years?
- What will my income look like over the next decade?
- How disciplined can I be with my finances?
Deciding between PSLF and aggressive repayment through refinancing requires an honest assessment of your finances, both present, and future, and comparing the cost of federal repayment to the potential savings from loan consolidation.
Making the right decision can save a ton of money, so it is critical to take the time necessary to evaluate your options thoroughly.